This document describes the current stable version of Kombu (5.3). For development docs, go here.

Source code for kombu.serialization

"""Serialization utilities."""

from __future__ import annotations

import codecs
import os
import pickle
import sys
from collections import namedtuple
from contextlib import contextmanager
from io import BytesIO

from .exceptions import (ContentDisallowed, DecodeError, EncodeError,
                         SerializerNotInstalled, reraise)
from .utils.compat import entrypoints
from .utils.encoding import bytes_to_str, str_to_bytes

__all__ = ('pickle', 'loads', 'dumps', 'register', 'unregister')
SKIP_DECODE = frozenset(['binary', 'ascii-8bit'])
TRUSTED_CONTENT = frozenset(['application/data', 'application/text'])

if sys.platform.startswith('java'):  # pragma: no cover

    def _decode(t, coding):
        return codecs.getdecoder(coding)(t)[0]
    _decode = codecs.decode

pickle_load = pickle.load

#: We have to use protocol 4 until we drop support for Python 3.6 and 3.7.
pickle_protocol = int(os.environ.get('PICKLE_PROTOCOL', 4))

codec = namedtuple('codec', ('content_type', 'content_encoding', 'encoder'))

def _reraise_errors(wrapper,
                    include=(Exception,), exclude=(SerializerNotInstalled,)):
    except exclude:
    except include as exc:
        reraise(wrapper, wrapper(exc), sys.exc_info()[2])

def pickle_loads(s, load=pickle_load):
    # used to support buffer objects
    return load(BytesIO(s))

def parenthesize_alias(first, second):
    return f'{first} ({second})' if first else second

class SerializerRegistry:
    """The registry keeps track of serialization methods."""

    def __init__(self):
        self._encoders = {}
        self._decoders = {}
        self._default_encode = None
        self._default_content_type = None
        self._default_content_encoding = None
        self._disabled_content_types = set()
        self.type_to_name = {}
        self.name_to_type = {}

    def register(self, name, encoder, decoder, content_type,
        """Register a new encoder/decoder.

            name (str): A convenience name for the serialization method.

            encoder (callable): A method that will be passed a python data
                structure and should return a string representing the
                serialized data.  If :const:`None`, then only a decoder
                will be registered. Encoding will not be possible.

            decoder (Callable): A method that will be passed a string
                representing serialized data and should return a python
                data structure.  If :const:`None`, then only an encoder
                will be registered.  Decoding will not be possible.

            content_type (str): The mime-type describing the serialized

            content_encoding (str): The content encoding (character set) that
                the `decoder` method will be returning. Will usually be
                `utf-8`, `us-ascii`, or `binary`.
        if encoder:
            self._encoders[name] = codec(
                content_type, content_encoding, encoder,
        if decoder:
            self._decoders[content_type] = decoder
        self.type_to_name[content_type] = name
        self.name_to_type[name] = content_type

    def enable(self, name):
        if '/' not in name:
            name = self.name_to_type[name]

    def disable(self, name):
        if '/' not in name:
            name = self.name_to_type[name]

    def unregister(self, name):
        """Unregister registered encoder/decoder.

            name (str): Registered serialization method name.

            SerializerNotInstalled: If a serializer by that name
                cannot be found.
            content_type = self.name_to_type[name]
            self._decoders.pop(content_type, None)
            self._encoders.pop(name, None)
            self.type_to_name.pop(content_type, None)
            self.name_to_type.pop(name, None)
        except KeyError:
            raise SerializerNotInstalled(
                f'No encoder/decoder installed for {name}')

    def _set_default_serializer(self, name):
        """Set the default serialization method used by this library.

            name (str): The name of the registered serialization method.
                For example, `json` (default), `pickle`, `yaml`, `msgpack`,
                or any custom methods registered using :meth:`register`.

            SerializerNotInstalled: If the serialization method
                requested is not available.
            (self._default_content_type, self._default_content_encoding,
             self._default_encode) = self._encoders[name]
        except KeyError:
            raise SerializerNotInstalled(
                f'No encoder installed for {name}')

    def dumps(self, data, serializer=None):
        """Encode data.

        Serialize a data structure into a string suitable for sending
        as an AMQP message body.

            data (List, Dict, str): The message data to send.

            serializer (str): An optional string representing
                the serialization method you want the data marshalled
                into. (For example, `json`, `raw`, or `pickle`).

                If :const:`None` (default), then json will be used, unless
                `data` is a :class:`str` or :class:`unicode` object. In this
                latter case, no serialization occurs as it would be

                Note that if `serializer` is specified, then that
                serialization method will be used even if a :class:`str`
                or :class:`unicode` object is passed in.

            Tuple[str, str, str]: A three-item tuple containing the
            content type (e.g., `application/json`), content encoding, (e.g.,
            `utf-8`) and a string containing the serialized data.

            SerializerNotInstalled: If the serialization method
                requested is not available.
        if serializer == 'raw':
            return raw_encode(data)
        if serializer and not self._encoders.get(serializer):
            raise SerializerNotInstalled(
                f'No encoder installed for {serializer}')

        # If a raw string was sent, assume binary encoding
        # (it's likely either ASCII or a raw binary file, and a character
        # set of 'binary' will encompass both, even if not ideal.
        if not serializer and isinstance(data, bytes):
            # In Python 3+, this would be "bytes"; allow binary data to be
            # sent as a message without getting encoder errors
            return 'application/data', 'binary', data

        # For Unicode objects, force it into a string
        if not serializer and isinstance(data, str):
            with _reraise_errors(EncodeError, exclude=()):
                payload = data.encode('utf-8')
            return 'text/plain', 'utf-8', payload

        if serializer:
            content_type, content_encoding, encoder = \
            encoder = self._default_encode
            content_type = self._default_content_type
            content_encoding = self._default_content_encoding

        with _reraise_errors(EncodeError):
            payload = encoder(data)
        return content_type, content_encoding, payload

    def loads(self, data, content_type, content_encoding,
              accept=None, force=False, _trusted_content=TRUSTED_CONTENT):
        """Decode serialized data.

        Deserialize a data stream as serialized using `dumps`
        based on `content_type`.

            data (bytes, buffer, str): The message data to deserialize.

            content_type (str): The content-type of the data.
                (e.g., `application/json`).

            content_encoding (str): The content-encoding of the data.
                (e.g., `utf-8`, `binary`, or `us-ascii`).

            accept (Set): List of content-types to accept.

            ContentDisallowed: If the content-type is not accepted.

            Any: The unserialized data.
        content_type = (bytes_to_str(content_type) if content_type
                        else 'application/data')
        if accept is not None:
            if content_type not in _trusted_content \
                    and content_type not in accept:
                raise self._for_untrusted_content(content_type, 'untrusted')
            if content_type in self._disabled_content_types and not force:
                raise self._for_untrusted_content(content_type, 'disabled')
        content_encoding = (content_encoding or 'utf-8').lower()

        if data:
            decode = self._decoders.get(content_type)
            if decode:
                with _reraise_errors(DecodeError):
                    return decode(data)
            if content_encoding not in SKIP_DECODE and \
                    not isinstance(data, str):
                with _reraise_errors(DecodeError):
                    return _decode(data, content_encoding)
        return data

    def _for_untrusted_content(self, ctype, why):
        return ContentDisallowed(
            'Refusing to deserialize {} content of type {}'.format(
                parenthesize_alias(self.type_to_name.get(ctype, ctype), ctype),

#: Global registry of serializers/deserializers.
registry = SerializerRegistry()
dumps = registry.dumps
loads = registry.loads
register = registry.register
unregister = registry.unregister

[docs] def raw_encode(data): """Special case serializer.""" content_type = 'application/data' payload = data if isinstance(payload, str): content_encoding = 'utf-8' with _reraise_errors(EncodeError, exclude=()): payload = payload.encode(content_encoding) else: content_encoding = 'binary' return content_type, content_encoding, payload
def register_json(): """Register a encoder/decoder for JSON serialization.""" from kombu.utils import json as _json registry.register('json', _json.dumps, _json.loads, content_type='application/json', content_encoding='utf-8') def register_yaml(): """Register a encoder/decoder for YAML serialization. It is slower than JSON, but allows for more data types to be serialized. Useful if you need to send data such as dates """ try: import yaml registry.register('yaml', yaml.safe_dump, yaml.safe_load, content_type='application/x-yaml', content_encoding='utf-8') except ImportError: def not_available(*args, **kwargs): """Raise SerializerNotInstalled. Used in case a client receives a yaml message, but yaml isn't installed. """ raise SerializerNotInstalled( 'No decoder installed for YAML. Install the PyYAML library') registry.register('yaml', None, not_available, 'application/x-yaml') def unpickle(s): return pickle_loads(str_to_bytes(s)) def register_pickle(): """Register pickle serializer. The fastest serialization method, but restricts you to python clients. """ def pickle_dumps(obj, dumper=pickle.dumps): return dumper(obj, protocol=pickle_protocol) registry.register('pickle', pickle_dumps, unpickle, content_type='application/x-python-serialize', content_encoding='binary') def register_msgpack(): """Register msgpack serializer. See Also -------- """ pack = unpack = None try: import msgpack if msgpack.version >= (0, 4): from msgpack import packb, unpackb def pack(s): # noqa return packb(s, use_bin_type=True) def unpack(s): # noqa return unpackb(s, raw=False) else: def version_mismatch(*args, **kwargs): raise SerializerNotInstalled( 'msgpack requires msgpack-python >= 0.4.0') pack = unpack = version_mismatch except (ImportError, ValueError): def not_available(*args, **kwargs): raise SerializerNotInstalled( 'No decoder installed for msgpack. ' 'Please install the msgpack-python library') pack = unpack = not_available registry.register( 'msgpack', pack, unpack, content_type='application/x-msgpack', content_encoding='binary', ) # Register the base serialization methods. register_json() register_pickle() register_yaml() register_msgpack() # Default serializer is 'json' registry._set_default_serializer('json') NOTSET = object()
[docs] def enable_insecure_serializers(choices=NOTSET): """Enable serializers that are considered to be unsafe. Note: ---- Will enable ``pickle``, ``yaml`` and ``msgpack`` by default, but you can also specify a list of serializers (by name or content type) to enable. """ choices = ['pickle', 'yaml', 'msgpack'] if choices is NOTSET else choices if choices is not None: for choice in choices: try: registry.enable(choice) except KeyError: pass
[docs] def disable_insecure_serializers(allowed=NOTSET): """Disable untrusted serializers. Will disable all serializers except ``json`` or you can specify a list of deserializers to allow. Note: ---- Producers will still be able to serialize data in these formats, but consumers will not accept incoming data using the untrusted content types. """ allowed = ['json'] if allowed is NOTSET else allowed for name in registry._decoders: registry.disable(name) if allowed is not None: for name in allowed: registry.enable(name)
# Insecure serializers are disabled by default since v3.0 disable_insecure_serializers() # Load entrypoints from installed extensions for ep, args in entrypoints('kombu.serializers'): # pragma: no cover register(, *args) def prepare_accept_content(content_types, name_to_type=None): """Replace aliases of content_types with full names from registry. Raises ------ SerializerNotInstalled: If the serialization method requested is not available. """ name_to_type = registry.name_to_type if not name_to_type else name_to_type if content_types is not None: try: return {n if '/' in n else name_to_type[n] for n in content_types} except KeyError as e: raise SerializerNotInstalled( f'No encoder/decoder installed for {e.args[0]}') return content_types