This document is for Kombu's development version, which can be significantly different from previous releases. Get the stable docs here: 5.0.



You can create a producer using a Connection:

>>> producer = connection.Producer()

You can also instantiate Producer directly, it takes a channel or a connection as an argument:

>>> with Connection('amqp://') as conn:
...     with as channel:
...          producer = Producer(channel)

Having a producer instance you can publish messages:

>>> from kombu import Exchange

>>> exchange = Exchange('name', type='direct')

>>> producer.publish(
...      {'hello': 'world'},  # message to send
...      exchange=exchange,   # destination exchange
...      routing_key='rk',    # destination routing key,
...      declare=[exchange],  # make sure exchange is declared,
... )

Mostly you will be getting a connection from a connection pool, and this connection can be stale, or you could lose the connection in the middle of sending the message. Using retries is a good way to handle these intermittent failures:

>>> producer.publish({'hello': 'world', ..., retry=True})

In addition a retry policy can be specified, which is a dictionary of parameters supported by the retry_over_time() function

>>> producer.publish(
...     {'hello': 'world'}, ...,
...     retry=True,
...     retry_policy={
...         'interval_start': 0, # First retry immediately,
...         'interval_step': 2,  # then increase by 2s for every retry.
...         'interval_max': 30,  # but don't exceed 30s between retries.
...         'max_retries': 30,   # give up after 30 tries.
...     },
... )

The declare argument lets you pass a list of entities that must be declared before sending the message. This is especially important when using the retry flag, since the broker may actually restart during a retry in which case non-durable entities are removed.

Say you are writing a task queue, and the workers may have not started yet so the queues aren’t declared. In this case you need to define both the exchange, and the declare the queue so that the message is delivered to the queue while the workers are offline:

>>> from kombu import Exchange, Queue
>>> task_queue = Queue('tasks', Exchange('tasks'), routing_key='tasks')

>>> producer.publish(
...     {'hello': 'world'}, ...,
...     retry=True,
...     routing_key=task_queue.routing_key,
...     declare=[task_queue],  # declares exchange, queue and binds.
... )

Bypassing routing by using the anon-exchange

You may deliver to a queue directly, bypassing the brokers routing mechanisms, by using the “anon-exchange”: set the exchange parameter to the empty string, and set the routing key to be the name of the queue:

>>> producer.publish(
...     {'hello': 'world'},
...     exchange='',
... )


Json is the default serializer when a non-string object is passed to publish, but you can also specify a different serializer:

>>> producer.publish({'hello': 'world'}, serializer='pickle')

See Serialization for more information.